domingo, 2 de fevereiro de 2020

The concept of Tchekhov's gun in games

It is always interesting to create a cris-cross between literature and games. In fact, both worlds are intrinsically connected, and this is especially evident in games with narrative, characters, plot twists etc. I like to think about games as “ergodic literature” — an idea previously discussed in this post.

Here, in this short article, I would like to address the concept of Tchekhov’s gun applied to games. Anton Tchekhov (1860–1904) was one of the most important voices in Russian literature. He developed the principle that states that every element in a story must be necessary, and irrelevant elements should be removed. Tchekov said that, if you say in the first act that there is a rifle hanging on the wall, in the second or the third act it must be fired. If the rifle isn’t going to be used, it shouldn't be hanging there. The Russian author also said that one must never place a loaded rifle on the stage if it's not going to be fired. It's wrong to make promises you don't mean to keep.



What does this principle mean inside the gaming universe? As Tchekhov has postulated for literature, in games we also need to create a sense of order and to make sure every single element is relevant. If the scenery displays a highlighted symbol, it should have some function in that stage, like serving as a hint for a puzzle or as an object that the player must collect in order to defeat an enemy.

To further illustrate this, we can discuss a puzzle from the game Little Nightmares. In the scenery, there is a TV that can be turned on and a door that cannot be opened. But, previously, the player received a piece of information: in the other room there’s a bizarre blind create that is attracted to sound. So, you must turn on the TV, get close to the door, and wait until the monster opens it, so that you can walk into the next room. Check the video below:



In this example, imagine if the TV was just a decoration, something useless in the puzzle flux. It would make no sense in the game and it would be contrary to the concept of Tchekhov’s gun.

This is the point I wanted to make with this short article: everything must be interconnected and play a role in your game.

I’ll talk more about the overlapping universes of literature and games in the next posts.

#GoGamers

quinta-feira, 2 de janeiro de 2020

10 Brazilian videogames to start 2020 in an epic way

I don’t like to make lists but this one is a special exception. I created a list with 10 Brazilian games that I loved a lot to play in last years. As a Brazilian guy, nothing fairer than talking a little bit about the games created in my country. You can find any of them easily in Steam or the mainstream consoles. I tried to put a small description of each one with a trailer. You can search on Google to know more about them.

1.Horizon Chase Turbo (Aquiris)

Horizon Chase Turbo is a modern take on the 90s old-school racers that we loved the most such as Out Run or Top Gear. It’s the first game in analogic Blu-ray launched in Brazilian Territory. Platforms: PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, Android, iOS, Xbox One



2.Chroma Squad (Behold Studios)

Chroma Squad is a tactical role-playing video game influenced by tokusatsu TV shows, particularly the Super Sentai and Power Rangers franchises. Platforms: PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, Xbox One, Android, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Macintosh operating systems, macOS.



3.Celeste (MiniBoss)

Celeste is platform game in which players control a girl named Madeline in a beautiful, challenging and metaphorical struggle against anxiety and depression (I really love this one). Platforms: Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, Xbox One



4.Rainy Day (Thais Weiller & Amora B.)

A short and reflective experience about depression on a rainy day. A game to be played right in your browser. Click here. Platform: Internet browsers.



5.Shiny (Garage 227)

Awesome art, robots and puzzles. I'll not say anything more, but Shiny was one of the most immersive experiences I had with a game in the last years. Check the trailer below and try to play. Platforms: PC, Xbox One and PS4.



6.Blazing Chrome (JoyMasher)

Blazing Chrome is a classic co-op run 'n gun with an original arcade feel. Players can choose between Mavra, the badass human resistance, soldier or Doyle, the groovy rebel robot, to kick some metal ass. Are you a Contra lover? You'll love this game. Platforms: PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch, Xbox One, Microsoft Windows



7.Aritana and the Twin Masks (DUAIK)

second adventure of a universe that explores even more the forest’s mysteries, based in the brazilian mythology and culture. With a new weapon, a bow and arrow, the adventure extends gameplay possibilities, bringing 3D movement, big sceneries in open landscapes to explore and powers that helps the player solve several puzzles. Explore a huge lost temple and find artifacts that can be mixed in many special potions and prepare yourself to save the tree of life. Platforms: Xbox One.



8.Sky Racket (Double Dash Studios)

Sky Racket is a mixture of the casual fun from Block Breakers and the awesome action from Shoot ‘Em Ups, which makes it the first Shmup Breaker. Platforms: Microsoft Windows, Linux, macOS, IBM PC compatible.



9.Tamashii (Vikintor)

Tamashii it's a platform game that generates a sense of strangeness for its gameplay and layout. I can't express in words why I liked this game so much. I think it was his strangeness that made me find an experience interesting. The dark ambience soundtrack with the lovecraftian/gigerian creatures/scenarios are the high points of the game for me. About the developer: Vikintor is a Brazilian independent artist and game creator; his work it's mostly about Metaphysical punk, Transgressive Gnosticism and Philosophically subversive themes. Making small and medium-size games with the proposal to conceive experimental interactive medium of expression (text from author's site). Platform: Microsoft Windows.



10.Lenin - The Lion (Lornyon)

Lenin is an albino lion, the only one of his kind, and because of that he feels insecure and constantly discouraged. In fact. Worse, his mother does not understand why his son was born this way, and the whole village despises him and treats him cruelly. At school, he suffers bullying and can’t concentrate on class. Now, hopeless about life, certain situations seem to awaken in Lenin something that is not of everyone’s reality, but only of his. Something he will discover to be the part of something else. Platform: Microsoft Windows.



Bonus Stage: Mind Alone (Sioux)

Time for self-promotion! MIND ALONE is an experimental mobile game that uses puzzle mechanics to create a dark narrative about somebody trapped in their own mind. Each puzzle is a memory and the player needs to solve them to find hints about how it happened. I created this game in a partnership with Sioux, a Brazilian gaming publisher. Platforms: iOS and Android.


Hope you enjoy and happy new year.

#GoGamers

domingo, 1 de dezembro de 2019

My list of the best games played this year, and a small reflection for 2020

On the last post of this year, I decided to make a list of the best games I played during 2019. Curiously, during the process of this ranking, I found myself reflecting on the content of Jesper Juul’s new book “Handmade Pixels” (2019).

In his new book, Juul discusses how independent games became a historical movement that borrowed the term “independent” from film and music while finding its own kind of independence. The reading of Juul’s book makes me reflect about how truly independent games that I played this year are, and what makes an indie game a really independent product.



Well, I’m still reading the book and I’ll make some considerations about it soon. It’s a really interesting content for game design and game studies classes.

For now, I want to share the list with the best 10 games that I have experienced in 2019. Important: 1) some of them are a little bit old, but I only played them this year; 2) they aren’t listed in a scale “from best to worst”, I just put them together.

  • Baba is you
  • What remains of Edith Finch
  • Blasphemous
  • Return of the Obra Dinn
  • Cuphead
  • Gris
  • Gorogoa
  • Katana Zero
  • Hue
  • Resident Evil 2 (remake)

Hope you enjoy it! See you next year!


#GoGamers



Reference:

JUUL, Jesper. Handmade Pixels: Independent Video Games and the Quest for Authenticity. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2019

sexta-feira, 1 de novembro de 2019

TAP THE TAP: an advergame to promote a Brazilian brewhouse

This site is a platform to discuss gaming concept ideas, but it’s also a place where I can show a little bit of my game designing work. In this post, I want to present a game that I developed for Let’s Beer – a Brazilian brewhouse located in São Paulo.

TAP THE TAP is an advergame; in other words: a game to promote a brand, a product or a service. A ludic project with advertising purposes. TAP THE TAP is a hyper-casual game with simple mechanics where you must tap the beer taps to match the same order from the clients at the bar. As the game advances, you must be faster to deliver the beers or you can lose a life. Let’s Beer brewhouse used the game to give its customers discounts based on points, engaging them to a branding experience and promoting a new bitter ale produced by the company. Click here to play the game.



TAP THE TAP is a very fast experience created with HTML 5 programming. The game does not require any plugins and players can open it directly on the browser (desktop or mobile). The game is an attempt to promote de brewhouse and to establish a new dialogue with customers that can share the game with friends in a viral way.



One more produced. One more to use as an example in classes and for the portfolio.

#GoGamers

sexta-feira, 4 de outubro de 2019

Ten ideas from Reiner Knizia about playtesting

Reiner Knizia is one of the biggest names in game design around the world. The German game designer is a mathematician and has his name associated to more than 700 games launched in many different countries. I had the honor to talk personally to Knizia in 2011, at DIGRA’s conference in Hilversun (Netherlands) and I watched a great keynote about the game designing process in the same event.



On that occasion, I gave Knizia my board game, YN, and had the opportunity to talk a little bit with him (a great achievement for my game designer career).



I follow Knizia in social media and I’m always taking notes about the knowledge on game design he shares on those platforms. In this post, I will reproduce 10 ideas Knizia showed recently on Twitter about playtesting (one of the most fundamental topics in the game designing process). Below, I listed the 10 points. Follow him by clicking here.

Playtesting 1. Those who do not play do not live. Those who do not playtest do not design.

Playtesting 2. Designs always work perfectly in your mind. The first playtest is the (often cruel) moment of truth.

Playtesting 3. Regardless of how much experience you have, you cannot develop a game on the drawing board – only at the playing table.

Playtesting 4. Game design is a classic iterative process of playing and improving – nowadays popularised as “design thinking”.

Playtesting 5. When your playtesters do not like your design, (usually) your design is to blame – not your playtesters.

Playtesting 6. I recognise good playtesters by my (frequent) urge to strangle them.

Playtesting 7. For your design to appeal to one group, test with one group. For your design to have broad appeal, test with many groups.

Playtesting 8. You can make (most) designs interesting through your play-talk - but when published, your design needs to speak for itself.

Playtesting 9. Blind playtesting, without you taking part, is as useful as other people going on a rollercoaster and reporting their experience.

Playtesting 10. When you have playtested your design to perfection, let it rest some time, then play again. – Expect to be surprised!

#GoGamers

domingo, 1 de setembro de 2019

A short analysis about Gorogoa’s puzzle experience

Definitely, the most interesting and thought-provoking game I’ve played this year was Gorogoa. I experienced the awesome puzzles in the screen of Nintendo Switch and, wow, that was mesmerizing. I followed the whole gaming creative process in social media, but the gameplay surprised me in an epic level.



It’s hard to describe the game in few words, but according to the definition from the official site, Gorogoa is “an ingenious, perfectly crafted puzzler”. The game creator, Jason Roberts, developed thousands of meticulously detailed hand-drawn illustrations, encompassing the impressive scope of Gorogoa's personal narrative.



Essentially, in the gameplay, you control four quadrants where you must execute a series of zoom in and zoom outs in the images to recombine shapes and create new physical possibilities and structure new scenarios from the most improbable objects. The video below explains the game’s main idea:



The great gameplay experience makes me want to write a personal short analysis of Gorogoa (for further consulting in classes) following a model proposed by Tracy Fullerton (2008) in her book Game design workshop.

• Players: single player game; one player against the puzzles
• Objectives: combine patterns to create and recreate scenarios/objects
• General rules: you can point and click in four different quadrants using zoom in and zoom out to connect new possibilities of images
• Resources: colorful images (hand drawn) with a fantasy theme disposed in four quadrants
• Conflicts: how good is your vision and imagination to solve the puzzles
• Limits: four quadrants with limited amount of zoom in/out possibilities
• Results: when you complete a puzzle correctly, the game shows you an animation and a new part of the scenario/narrative to point out your progress



Reference:

FULLERTON, Tracy, et al. Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. Burlington: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2008.

#GoGamers

sábado, 3 de agosto de 2019

Article: The Strategic Use of Smartphone Features to Create a Gaming Experience of Mystery: The Mind Alone Case

As I said in the last post, in July I attended the Human Computer Interface Conference at Orlando (Florida). Today I want to share my article (click here) and invite everybody to buy the conference's book with all the articles related to the subject "games" (click here).



#GoGamers